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Olive Oil Production




The characteristics in which the olive arrives at the oil mill influence the final quality of the olive oil obtained, therefore, olives with a good degree of maturity, healthy (absence of pest attacks) will be required and the conditions of collection and Transport to the mill are adequate. From here, the extraction process can, in the best of cases, respect the existing quality. The quality of the olive arrives at the mill is decisive for obtaining a good olive oil, since although the mill has a good system of extraction and processing, if the olive arrives in poor conditions, it is difficult to obtain a Quality olive oil.

A good processing system is the one that obtains the oil with the least deterioration of the properties that the olive already has. The olive grower (producer) must be aware that his performance on the crop is what first influences the quality of the oil.



Once the olives have arrived at the mill, the inspection, control and classification of the olives will proceed.



The cleaning and washing of the olives are basic operations for the elaboration of olive oils of high quality. Olives usually reach the mill with a percentage of impurities (leaves, branches, soil, stones, dust, etc.) ranging from 5 - 15%. Thus, it becomes necessary to have machinery capable of eliminating such impurities. The main elements of the chain of cleaning and washing are the CLEANER and WASHER.

CLEANER: Olives are subjected to vibration and airflow to eliminate, as much as possible, the leaves and soil they can contain, as well as discarding defective olives of small size and bones.
WASHING MACHINE: The olives are washed to remove the sand and soil that they may contain. In this process the olive is brought into contact with a flow of water that carries it in the stream. Heavier elements, such as stones or pieces of metal of shape or size to the olive, exit through one of the outputs of the washing machine.
At the exit of the machine there is a device to facilitate the draining of the olive and to eliminate possible sticks of small branches that have passed through the cleaner. The draining is important to be carried out in order to avoid the subsequent grinding of emulsions that make it difficult to extract the oil and, in short, so that the final quality of the oil is not affected.



Once the weighing of olives has been carried out, they are deposited in the storage hoppers waiting for their milling. Different chemical and biochemical changes can occur during the storage of the olives, which cause the deterioration of the oil. These chemical and biochemical changes are due to the fact that during storage the temperature of the olives increases, favoring fermentative processes and an increase in acidity.

The olives should not be stored more than 24 hours from their reception, because from this moment the fermentation processes mentioned above begin, so in our extra virgin olive oil we do not allow more than 4 hours to pass since it is collected The olive in the tree until it happens to be ground.

The situation is aggravated by the olives of the soil or that are attacked by pests; For this reason, the olives from the soil should never be mixed with those that come from the tree, as it would affect the final quality of the oil.



The preparation of the pasta has as main objectives:

- Break completely, and properly, the cells where the oil is.

- Grind the solids so that they act as a filter holder.

The pulping consists of two phases:

GRINDING: Grinding is aimed at breaking the tissues where the oily matter is housed. In order to make this break, the olive is subjected to the action of the metal crushers.
BEAT: The beat of olive paste is a basic step in all processes or extraction systems.
The objective of the shake is to form a continuous oil phase to facilitate the separation of the oil in the following operations, in addition, it is the complement of shearing of the parts insufficiently treated in the mill.

In order to facilitate the subsequent separation of the oils, it is provided to the mixer of a heating system.

The temperature of this should not be higher than 27ºC because from 30ºC the aromatic components are destroyed, the color of the oil turns reddish and acidity increases.

The extraction process used is the continuous centrifugation extraction system.




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